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The term red brick or redbrick was first coined by Edgar Allison Peers, a professor of Spanish at the University of Liverpool, to describe the civic universities (under the pseudonym "Bruce Truscot" in his 1943 book Redbrick University).
Although Peers used red brick in the title of the original book, he used redbrick adjectivally in the text and in the title of the 1945 sequel.
the description has since ceased to be derogatory with the 1960s proliferation of universities and the reclassification of polytechnics in 1992.
Eight of the nine institutions are members of the Russell Group (which receives two-thirds of all research grant funding in the United Kingdom).
Normalizing LA–ICP–MC–MS data to an in-house calcite standard gave a more precise date of 165.5±3.3 Ma for IS1 cement.
An unzoned ammonite, SS2, of Bajocian age (168–170 Ma) yield a TIMS-normalized LA U–Pb age of 158.8 ± 4.3 Ma for its early-diagenetic cement.
Victoria University of Manchester (1903) (Royal School of Medicine and Surgery, Manchester (1824), Owens College, Manchester (1851), Victoria University (1880)) UMIST (1956) (Mechanics' Institute, Manchester (1824), Manchester Technical School (1883))The federal Victoria University existed between 1880-1903.
assent to the Thirty-Nine Articles) on staff and students.
Graduates of Oxford, Cambridge, and London had already been enfranchised and graduates of the University of Wales were enfranchised at the same time.
Reading University was added to the Combined English Universities constituency in 1928 (prior to this its graduates, taking London degrees, would have joined the London constituency). The Victoria University was a federal university based in Manchester with colleges in Manchester, Leeds and Liverpool.
Queen's University Belfast gained university status in 1908 during the same period as the English red brick universities, having previously been established in 1845 as a college of the Queen's University of Ireland (later Royal University of Ireland).
As a result, it meets the dictionary definition of a red brick university, The term "red brick" is also sometimes used more widely to mean any of the non-ancient universities.The Robbins Report lists Reading, Southampton, Hull, Exeter, Leicester and Keele as being "younger civic universities".Of these, the University of Reading, founded in the late 19th century as an extension college of Oxford University and the only university to receive its charter between the two world wars, describes itself as a "red brick" university.These universities developed out of various 19th-century private research and education institutes in industrial cities.