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This may require ROM integrated circuits to be physically replaced, or flash memory to be reprogrammed through a special procedure.Firmware such as the ROM BIOS of a personal computer may contain only elementary basic functions of a device and may only provide services to higher-level software.
Over time, popular usage extended the word "firmware" to denote any computer program that is tightly linked to hardware, including processor machine instructions for BIOS, bootstrap loaders, or the control systems for simple electronic devices such as a microwave oven, remote control, or computer peripheral.
Sometimes, third parties create an unofficial new or modified ("aftermarket") version of firmware in order to provide new features or to unlock hidden functionality; this is referred to as custom firmware.
An example is Rockbox as a firmware replacement for portable media players.
A television remote control is an example of an engineered product that contains firmware.
The firmware monitors the buttons, controls the LEDs, and processes the button presses in order to send the data in a format the receiving device, in this case, a television set, can understand and process.
Firmware such as the program of an embedded system may be the only program that will run on the system and provide all of its functions.